Судостроение

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Historical development

Since time immemorial, people have used water spaces - rivers, lakes, sea - first as a hunting ground, and then as a convenient way for moving and transportation of goods. The first primitive vessels appeared long before the wheel carts. The man went to sea at the dawn of its development. The mythology of the ancient saga descriptions of travel and allow you to collect information about the courts. sometimes in their very detailed reports on construction and snap "the first ships", indicating that the people built it according to the will of the gods. Such is the case with Noah's ark.

The oldest canoe-odnoderevka of Pesse, Graningen (Netherlands), + 275 -6315 BC Already about 2500 years BC vessels were different: for the transportation of goods for the carriage of passengers. They are driven by poles, oars and sails. At the time of the court were mostly military, trade or fishing. Later, the court for the rest, on which floated just for the sake of entertainment.

Such a ship Roman emperor Caligula (37 -. 41 years BC) ordered the construction for its jaunt on the lake. Neli. The unusually wide and flat design of the vessel due to its purpose: the ship for court entertainments. Actually the case has been recruited from the tree, and as the backwater of the upper deck beams using hollow baked clay. To ensure the tightness and safety board ship outer skin were covered with lead plates, interior flooring consisted of marble tiles.

In Russia, shipbuilding and seafaring have been known since the most remote times. Cave paintings dating from around 3000 BC, depicting hunting with a harpoon on the sea animals met on the coast of the White Sea. One of the oldest ships found in Russia, dates back to around 5c. BC.

In all Slavic languages there is a word the ship. The root of it - "bark" - is at the heart of words such as "basket". The oldest Russian ships were made of flexible rods, the basket and trimmed with bark (later - the skins). It is known that in the 8 in. our compatriots sailed on the Caspian Sea. At 9 and 10 in the first half. Russian were complete masters of the Black Sea, and not for nothing while the Oriental peoples called it "Russian Sea". In the 12th century. in Russia it was first constructed deck ships. Decks are designed to accommodate the soldiers who served at the same time protected the rowers. The Slavs were skilled shipbuilders and build ships of various designs:

shitik - pram with mounted wheel, fitted with a mast with a square sail and oars

sailboat - equipped with two masts bearing straight or raked shprintovye sails

Pomor lodya - had three masts, nesushie direct sail

ranshina - ship, where the body had in the underwater part of an egg shape. This compressive ice, among them had to swim, boat "be pressed" on the surface, without undergoing deformation and again plunged into the water when passing ice.

Organized marine shipbuilding in Russia began in the late 15th c., When the shipyard for the construction of fishing vessels was founded in the Solovetsky Monastery. Later in the 16-17 centuries. step forward made Zaporozhye Cossacks, who committed to his "Seagull" raids on the Turks. construction method was the same as in the manufacture of Kiev naboynyh lodey (to increase the size of the vessel to the dugout the middle of the sides nailed several rows of planks).

In June 1693, Peter I laid the first breech shipyard for the construction of warships in Arkhangelsk. A year later, Peter again visited Arkhangelsk. By this time, the 24-gun ship "St. Paul", frigate "holy Prophecy", a galley and a transport vessel "Flam" formed on the White Sea, the first Russian military fleet. Nachyalos creation of the regular navy.

In the spring of 1700 the 58-gun ship "Goto Prdistinatsiya" was built. In 1702, two frigates were launched in Arkhangelsk: "Holy Spirit" and "Mercury". In 1703 it was founded the St. Petersburg center of which was the Admiralty - the largest shipyard in the country. The first large ship, descended from the Admiralty shipyard slipway was built Fedosov Sklyaevym and Peter the Great in 1712 the 54-gun ship "Poltava". By 1714 Russia had its sailing fleet.

The biggest ship of Peter's time was a 90-gun ship "Forest" (1718.). Under Peter the following vessels have been introduced:

ships -. 40-55 m long, three-masted with 44-90 guns

Frigates -. length of 35 m, three-masted with 28-44 guns

snows -. 25-35 m long, two-masted with 10-18 guns

Parma, gliders, flute and others. 30 m in length.

In 1719 land Yefim Nikonov turned to Peter with a petition for permission to build a model of the first "Enigma" vessel. The first trial, held in 1724 ended in failure, and after the death of Peter I, all work was stopped.

lull period experienced by Russian shipbuilders after the death of Peter I was replaced in the second half of the 18th century. new rise, and by the end of the 18th century. The Black Sea Fleet has been created.

In the early 19th century. technically justified the classification of vessels has been introduced. During the reign of Alexander I, shipbuilding work were reduced, but the river shipbuilding continued. There was quite perfect for its time (late 18th century..) The type of wooden cargo ship - bark.

In 1830, in St. Petersburg it was launched cargo and passenger ship "Neva", which had but two steam engines and has rig. In 1838 in St. Petersburg, has been tested on the HBE the world's first electric ship. In 1848 Amosov built the first Russian screw frigate "Archimedes".

Especially rapidly began to develop shipping company on the Volga and other rivers after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the main shipbuilding company became established in 1849 Sormovo plant. Here, the first in the Russian iron barges were built and the first tovaropassazhirsky steamer. The world's first use of Diesel Engine on riverboats were carried out in Russia in 1903

In the second half of the 19th century. replacing wooden ships came iron. Curiously, the semi-submersible vessel "Brave" was built in the Russian military first metal ships were two submarines in 1834 In 1835. It sank below sea level, leaving only the chimney above the water. In the early 19th century. on ships were steam engines and the use of first wrought iron, and then rolled steel as a construction material in the construction of ships has resulted in the 1850-60's. a revolution in shipbuilding. The transition to the construction of iron ships demanded the introduction of a new process and full conversion refineries.